航天飞机和载人飞船有什么区别?

载人飞船与航天飞机的最大区别在于:载人飞船完全依靠火箭助推升空,完成任务后经过减速,沿弹道式轨迹穿过大气层软着陆后就不能再使用了;然而航天飞机是靠运载火箭发射和上升后,返回时能像飞机那样下滑和着陆在跑道上,并可以重复使用。


航天飞机是一种为穿越大气层和太空的界限(高度100公里的卡门线)而设计的火箭动力飞机。航天飞机结合了飞机与航天器的性质,像有翅膀的太空船。与普通宇宙飞船不同的是,它是一种可重复使用的航天器。迄今只有美国与前苏联曾经制造能进入近地轨道的航天飞机,并曾实际成功发射并回收,而美国是唯一曾以航天飞机成功进行载人任务的国家。其他国家发展的类似计划则尚未有实际发射并进入轨道的纪录。


载人飞船又称宇宙飞船,是一种运送航天员到达太空并安全返回的一次性使用的航天器。载人航天器的特点是其密封舱是支持宇航员生命的核心系统。为地心轨道设计的航天器称为载人轨道航天器,而设计用于飞往其他天体的航天器称为载人星际(远征)航天器。神舟载人飞船是我国自行研制的用于天地往返,运输人员和物资的载人航天器,至今,神舟飞船已完成载人和非载人共任务11次,搭载11名航天员进入太空完成科学实验。


图:知乎



航天飞机概述

space shuttle  

航天飞机是一种垂直起飞、水平降落、部分或完全重复使用的近地轨道有翼航天运载器。它综合利用火箭、飞机、飞船等航空、航天的先进技术,多以火箭发动机为动力上升入轨,完成轨道飞行后再入大气层,像飞机一样滑翔着陆,可重复使用数十次。主要用于在地球表面和近地轨道之间运送各种有效载荷,释放、维护和回收卫星,天文观测、对地观测和军事侦察,空间科学实验,为空间运送人员和货物或作为应急救生飞行器等多项航天任务。

航天飞机可分为部分重复使用航天飞机和完全重复使用航天飞机两大类。部分重复使用航天飞机可由重复使用轨道飞行器和火箭助推器及一次性使用外时贮箱并联组成,其中轨道飞行器带有主发动机,如美国现役航天飞机和前苏联的“暴风号”航天飞机。也曾出现过由重复使用轨道器和一次性使用火箭串联的航天飞机设计。完全重复使用航天飞机的特点是主发动机和推进剂贮箱均放在机身内,又可分为单级入轨和两级入轨两种形式。航天飞机的关键技术主要有氢氧主发动机、防热系统及材料、计算空气动力学及风洞试验、环境控制与生命保障、应急逃逸系统、机动飞行和准确着陆技术等。

真正用过航天飞机的国家,目前只有美国。60年代末,“阿波罗”工程开支经费浩大,在美国国内引起许多非议。美国在1969年初成立了一个专门研究载人航天下一阶段发展方向的小组,这个小组经过调查研究,建议发展空间运输系统,首先研制一种经济效益高的飞行器,即航天飞机作为这个系统的支柱。航天飞机的研制计划中规定制造5架轨道器,分别命名为:“奋进”号、“哥伦比亚”号、“挑战者”号、“发现”号和“阿特兰蒂斯”号。在1986 年和2003 年,“挑战者号”和“哥伦比亚号”航天飞机相继出事,造成机毁人亡的悲剧,再加之航天飞机逐渐老化,运营成本不断飙升,早已背离早期低成本重复使用航天器的理念。整个航天飞机计划于2011年7月21日宣告结束,亚特兰蒂斯号是最后一次飞行的航天飞机,随后退出了服役。此后,美国主要依靠俄罗斯联盟号宇宙飞船将物资和宇航员运送到国际空间站。


载人飞船概述

manned spacecraft

载人飞船是一种运送航天员到达太空并安全返回的一次性使用的航天器。主要有三种构型的载人飞船,即单舱型、双舱型和三舱型。其中单舱式最为简单,只有宇航员的座舱,美国第一个进入太空的宇航员约翰·格伦就是乘单舱型的“水星号”飞船上天的;双舱型飞船是由座舱和服务舱组成,服务舱提供动力、电源、氧气和水,改善了宇航员的工作和生活环境,世界第一个女宇航员瓦莲金娜•捷列什科娃 乘坐的前苏联“东方号”飞船、世界第一个出舱宇航员阿里克谢·列昂诺夫乘坐的前苏联“上升号”飞船以及美国的“双子星座号”飞船均属于双舱型;最复杂的就是三舱型飞船,它是在双舱型飞船基础上增加1个轨道舱,用于增加活动空间、进行科学实验等,或增加1个登月舱(登月式飞船),用于在月面着陆或离开月面,前苏联/俄罗斯的联盟系列和美国“阿波罗号”飞船是典型的三舱型。

我国的“神舟”系列飞船由轨道舱、返回舱、推进舱和附加段组成。总长约8.8m,质量约7.8t。采用两对太阳翼构型和升力控制返回、圆顶降落伞回收方案。飞船包括结构与机构,制导、导航与控制,热控,电源,测控与通信,数据管理,环境控制与生命保障,回收着陆,推进,仪表与照明,有效载荷,乘员和应急救生共13个分系统。神舟载人飞船可一船多用,既可留轨观测又可作为交会对接飞行器,满足天地往返的需求。


联盟号宇宙飞船,目前人类使用过的最成功的载人飞船型号


参考资料

1.  WJ百科-英文版(Space Shuttle)

2.  Manned Spacecraft

3.  知乎/爱问


文章作者:零度星系(天文在线)

审核人员:北极光

最终审核: 

编辑用时:2018年09月29日-2018年09月29日

审核用时: 一个小时

最后更新:2018年11月20日星期二


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