嫦娥四号发射在即:简单了解下人类探月之旅

从伽利略望远镜时代开始,人类不断探索月亮。现代的技术可以发展到近距离的拍摄月球背面,我们的探测器可以环绕月球,继而实现无人登月,最后载人登月。我们的脚步没有停止,21世纪将有更宏伟的计划——长久性的驻扎月球。

人类探测器造访月亮

月亮是我们最熟悉而感觉遥远陌生的地方,人类这种好奇号严重的高级动物,有了一点技术就非常迫不及待的去近距离接触月亮。我们还得感谢上个世纪中下叶的“冷战”时期,要不是这样,我们对近距离接触月亮的时间可能就会延后很多年。

人类拜访月亮的第一艘太空飞船是在1959年,由苏联制造的月球1号。本来是要着陆撞击月球的,但进入轨道时点火时间出现点小失误,所以直接掠过了地球。不过庆幸的是,它给人类创造了很多不可思议或意想不到的记录。它是第一个摆脱地球引力的人造卫星,也是第一个围绕太阳公转的人造行星。

后来第一个撞击月亮表面的还是苏联的月球2号,苏联的月球3号在1959年传回了人类的第一张月球背面图片,当时全世界都沸腾了!1966年月球9号成为人类第一个成功软着陆在月表的探测器,同一年月球10号成为人类第一个环绕月亮运行的人造月亮卫星探测器。随后取样月物质,月球16号、月球20号和月球24号总共带回0.38公斤的月岩。

月球3号发送回人类首张月球背面图像,图:网络

当时美国看见苏联的行动,开始有点小急了。大反击,载人登月!雄心勃勃的美国于1968年载人环月,这是人类第一次!胆子够大!要知道飞船在3天后才能抵达月亮,这期间要面临如氧气生活等等。最为激动人心的还在后面,也就是1969年人类第一次登月!记住这个日子!尼尔·阿姆斯壮是美国阿波罗11号任务的指挥官,他在1969年7月21日02:56 (世界时)踏上月球表面,成为第一位在月球上漫步的人。随后的几个阿波罗号也同样登月,他们总共带回了382公斤、共2196块月球岩石和土壤的标本。

在阿波罗8号任务,于1968年的圣诞夜从月球看见的地球。非洲在日没的边界线上,美洲在云层之下,在边界线末端左边的是南极大陆。图片来自:NASA / Bill Anders,图:NASA/Bill Anders

在1969年7月20日人类第一次登月任务中,太空人阿姆斯壮拍摄的太空人巴兹·艾德林。图:NASA

随后上个世纪末期,日本的探测器成为第三个环绕月亮的国家。

月球探勘者于1998年首次在月亮极区发现了大量的氢,这可能是人类首次间接性的发现了极地水冰的存在。

图片来自WJ百科

21世纪我国开始实施庞大的月亮探测计划

这一庞大的计划主要3大步,分别是“”、“登”、“驻”:

第一大步是:就是无人探测器探测月亮,又分为3小步,分别是“”、“”、“”。

首先是绕,无人探测器环绕月亮并撞击月表(硬着陆),其次是落,无人探测器月球车软着陆月亮表面,最后是回,无人探测器月球车采集月样并返回地球。

第二大步是登:就是载人登月,没有具体说明,大致应该和阿波罗计划类似。先载人绕月,然后登月,最后取样回地球。

第三大步是驻:长久性的驻扎月球,要知道我们前面说过,月面上极地有水冰而且月表有比较丰富清洁的核能源必须的燃料_氦3。

 

中国探月工程标识“月亮之上”为月字的变形,中央为两个脚印,图:维J百科

第一大步:探月工程(嫦娥工程)

我国在2003年3月1日启动规模庞大的探月工程计划,亦有“嫦娥奔月”之美意,因此也被称为“嫦娥工程”。

第一小步:环绕月球(探测月表)

2007年“嫦娥一号”奔向月亮并环绕月亮采集月表数据,在控制之下成功于2008年撞击月表(硬着陆)。

2010年“嫦娥二号”奔向月亮,为“嫦娥三号”的着陆器着陆月表做准备,主要拍摄了着陆地点-虹湾。

嫦娥一号传回并制作完成的首幅月面图像,图:新华社

第二小步:软着陆月表

又分为正面软着陆和背面软着陆。

正面软着陆在2013年已经完成。由“嫦娥三号”携带的“玉兔号”月球车在2013年成功软着陆于月表,并观测月亮上的星空,这是我国首次实现月球软着陆。

图上亮点为月基天文望远镜观测到的23颗星象。图:新华社

2013年12月17日至18日,着陆器地形地貌相机拍摄的着陆器周边360°范围的全景镶嵌影像图,采用方位投影方式表达。新华社发(国防科工局供图)

背面软着陆预计由“嫦娥四号”携带新月球车在2019年1月完成(发射在2018年12月),如果成功,这将是人类首次软着陆于月球背面。同时也是首次在月球的高纬度极地着陆。

着陆区初步选定为月球背面南极-艾特肯盆地(South Pole-Aitken,SPA)内的冯·卡门撞击坑(Von Kármán)内,坐标是南纬45.5度,东经178度。

要知道,因为在背面无线电通讯是无法抵达地球的(月亮内部结构不允许无线电通讯传过),所以在背面着陆必须要有个能够传到地球的通讯卫星,作为中间环节。这样就要发射一颗卫星,解决通讯问题。

所以“嫦娥四号”的中继卫星在北京时间的2018年5月21日凌晨5点就发射了,它成功抵达了地球与月亮引力平衡点-L2(地球月亮延长线上)附近运行。作为通讯的中继站点,以便于“指挥”月球车软着陆于月亮背面。由于L2点距离月球有约65000公里远,因此通讯卫星发出的信号还无法抵达地球。那么如何实现将信号传送到地球啦?科学家们就想到了《地–月L2点中继星月球近旁转移轨道设计》这个方案,有效的解决了月球挡住信号的问题。取在L2位置还有一点就是,如此近的距离又很方便的可以遥控到月表上的月球车。

L2点的分布图,图片来自: HBvG Commons, GNU FDL

图为月球近旁转移轨道示意图,图片来自《地–月L2点中继星月球近旁转移轨道设计》

图为转移轨道入轨点分布图(振幅3 000 km),图片来自《地–月L2点中继星月球近旁转移轨道设计》

第三小步:取样返回

早在2014年就发射了再入返回飞行试验器(嫦娥五号的T1试验器),当时的话,主要是为了试验绕月后返回地球。并且为取样返回做准备,试验很成功,试验器成功着陆地面。

预定2019年到2020年?来完成月球取样返回地球任务,主要分为月亮正面取样返回,极地取样返回,背面取样返回?(有待证实

预定2019年?主要将由“嫦娥五号”来完成月亮正面的自动化采样返回地球,月亮探测器的着陆地点为月亮正面的吕姆克山脉。

预定2020年?主要将由“嫦娥六号”来完成月亮极地附近的采样返回地球。

月亮背面取样返回,似乎未计划?或是“嫦娥五号”来完成?暂时不清楚。

第二大步:载人登月工程

根据现有的进度继续推进,预计2025年到2030年或2036年?完成初期的载人登月计划。

第三大步:长久性的驻扎月球

计划是好的,不过先搞定前面再说,希望本世纪中期就可以实现。

参考资料

1.WJ百科-月球[2018-04-22]

2.阿波罗计划.[2018-05-04]

3.中国探月工程[2018-02-21]

4.苏联的月球计划.[2017-05-23]

5.Moon Fact Sheet[2017-07-03]

6.Sun Fact Sheet[2018-02-23]

7.NASA- Planetary Fact Sheets. [2016-02-28]

8.Apollo program history

9.天文学名词

 

文章作者:零度星系(天文在线)

审核人员:暂无,征集审核志愿者中。要求细心仔细,女生优先。)

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编辑用时:2018年12月02日 -2018年12月07日(花费时长:约9个小时)

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最后更新2018年12月7日星期五

注意:所有信息数据庞大,难免出现错误,还请指出错误所在好加以改之。

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